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Number 4, Article 4

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4. Current, Continuous, and Cumulative Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A New Model for Trauma Counseling (Pages 323-340)

Ibrahim A. Kira, Jeffrey S. Ashby, Andrea Z. Omidy and Linda Lewandowski

The current dominant focus on treating single past traumas rarely addresses current, ongoing, or continuous interpersonal, intergroup, and systemic traumas or their cumulative and proliferation dynamics. The goal of this paper is to close this gap by introducing an alternative model that addresses these trauma types. The model incorporates eight precognitive, cognitive, behavioral, and social interventions. The behavioral interventions are (1) prioritizing safety and (2) addressing threats through behavior skills training inclusive of regulating personal and groupbased emotions. The precognitive components are (3) stimulating the will to live and positive dispositional qualities and (4) identity work. The cognitive components are (5) psychoeducation, (6) stress inoculation, and (7) trauma narration. The social intervention is (8) advocacy, social justice and reconnecting to social networks. We discuss the evidence for each component and provide a case example to illustrate the model’s utility. We also discuss future directions for research and model development.